All about Gothic style

The architectural style of medieval Europe is remembered by characteristic pointed towers, high, arrow-like windows, columns and stained glass windows. Gothic style has left its mark on the entire world architecture.

What's it?

The whole period in the development of European culture, prevalent in the central territories, as well as the west and north-east of Europe, from the 11th to the 16th century, is called Gothic.
In Italian, gotico means "unusual," "barbaric."
The term was coined by Italian Giorgio Vasari. The Gothic period follows the Romanesque and completes the development of medieval art. The subsequent Renaissance considers the Middle Ages a barbaric period.

Most often, this term refers to the architectural style in the construction of buildings. But Gothic is a whole trend in art: sculpture, stained glass, miniature, painting, fresco.
The main feature of Gothic style in architecture is the design of buildings. It is always lush, majestic and monumental. Most often the style was used to create religious structures - churches, cathedrals. And yet, the outer dimensions of buildings always seem much more modest than inside.


The height of the cathedrals and temples was provided by the use of the frame system in their construction. The design features of Gothic buildings include:

ribs (inner support arches);
arkbutans (outdoor stubborn arches);
counterforces (external vertical hard pillars);
pinakly (sharp turrets);
(cross vaults, carved gabents).
Gothic style was born in northern France in the middle of the 12th century. The first Gothic church was built in the Abbey of Saint-Denis. Gradually, this architecture spread to all European countries, including the UK, Germany and Spain. On the Apennine Peninsula Gothic came much later, undergoing significant changes, and got its special "Italian" direction, which quickly changed the Renaissance.


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Variety

The entire architecture of the medieval Gothic period can be divided into three periods.

Early, dates from the mid-12th and first quarter of the 13th century. The second name of the period is the Lancet Gothic. This period includes the architecture of France. The Church of Saint-Denis Abbey was first built using ribs instead of ribs and from a rounded arch to a lancet.
Mature (high gothic). The second name is "radiant," dating back to 1270-1380. This is named for the most typical ornament of the period: rose windows in the form of sunlight. The most striking example is the Paris chapel of Saint-Chapelle. 
Late. The second name is "flaming Gothic" - style of Manuelino (Portugal) and Isabelino (Castile region, Spain). It dates from the late 14th and early 16th centuries. Characteristic features in ornaments: elongated gables and arches, the presence of patterns resembling flames. 

In western and central Europe (Great Britain and Germany) the stages of the Gothic Middle Ages are separated in their own way.

Lancet-shaped Gothic, acharacteristic feature - it collected in the form of a beam of ribs, visually resembling a lancet. Characteristic for the 13th century, the brightest example is the cathedral in Salisbury. There are no ornaments in the finish, simplicity and rigor prevail.
The appearance of decorative elements in the finish served as the impetus for the name of the new period - "decorated Gothic." The cathedral was equipped with additional ribbed geometric protrusions. Dated from the 14th century. Most vividly represented in Exeter Cathedral. 

Perpendicular Gothic dates back to the 15th century. The name comes from a large number of straight lines in the finish. 
In the first third of the 16th century, the Tudor Gothic appeared. Characterized by the construction of secular buildings, brick is used as the main material. The first buildings, made in the style of Tudor Gothic - London's Palace of St. James. 
With the development of crafts, the houses gradually become more familiar to our time. New, more comfortable furniture samples are being developed, decorative finishes are made using draperies.

In modern architecture, different styles come together. In large cities, construction is carried out in the style of modern, hi-tech, constructivism.

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Only in the construction of country houses more often used elements of Gothic: buildings are made of stone, install high arched windows with stained glass, towers on the roof, use the classic gray or purple color in the decor.

The latest technologies of the 21st century have allowed to expand the color range of materials used. In addition to the classic Gothic shades of white, gray, black, dark blue and green, it was possible to use pink, blue, yellow and orange in the form of stained glass, furniture upholstery and in carpets.

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Application in the interior

Creating new projects of low-rise buildings, it is not necessary to perform all the necessary and characteristic of the Gothic style elements.

The construction of the house can be carried out of brick and concrete blocks, and in the finish to use decorative plaster or panels imitating stone.
Characteristic features of the Gothic style are the interweaving of arches and columns, which make up the frame of the house and create a multi-layered interweaving of the roof vault.

On the ceiling in the high room the style is accentuated by open rafters or wooden beams. In the design of the ceiling it is possible to use murals, stucco, wrought-iron or cast elements. Will emphasize the style of use in the bottom third of the wall decorative finish under limestone, marble or wild stone.
A very good combination is obtained when a plastered wall is applied and partially open masonry remains. The room looks intriguing with the black coloration of the walls, characteristic of gothic. Very interesting and rich looks draping wallpaper or textiles. A black background with a grey ornament, a deep burgundy or purple, a dark green bottle, and muted blue or blood-red colors create a Victorian atmosphere.

Gothic style in a city apartment is achieved by the choice of environment and furniture.
To create the desired design of the Victorian era, install decorative fireplaces, candelabras, small sculptures of porcelain, copper and bronze utensils.

The furniture is simple, massive and a little rough. Pretentiously decorated headboards of the bed, high carved backs of chairs, filleted lockers, consisting of several tiers of buffets. Be sure to have old high mirrors, wrought-iron mantelpieces, fancy lamps with crystal pendants, carved caskets and unusual poofs.

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